Facsimile – An exact copy of a musical manuscript. Facsimiles allow a form of access to rare archival materials for research. They are not designed for performance.
Historical Edition - The term "historical edition" may be applied to any music publication devoted to a past repertory. For more information, see the "Historical Editions (M2-M3)" tab (Music Research).
Manuscript/ Holograph – A document wholly in the handwriting of its author. These materials are usually held by archives, and they are only accessible to a handful of scholars. A work may have multiple autographs (for example, a composer might have revised an opera for a subsequent performance after the premiere).
Performing Edition – An edition of a score usually prepared from a secondary source, to which the editor (sometimes a well-known performer) adds performance notes and articulations that are indistinguishable from those of the source. Designed to help the modern performer, performing editions include elements of performance practice "written in" by the editor. Performing editions are commonly used in private lessons.
Urtext – A score prepared on the basis of a critical evaluation of all know primary sources, this class of edition is designed to present the most authoritative and authentic version of a musical work. Any editorial material added to an Urtext edition is clearly distinguished from original material. These editions require you to use your own knowledge of performance practice.
This landmark book enlightens amateur and professional musicians about a way of practicing that transforms a sometimes frustrating, monotonous, and overly strenuous labor into an exhilarating and rewarding experience. Acclaimed pianist and teacher Madeline Bruser combines physiological and meditative principles to help musicians release physical and mental tension and unleash their innate musical talent. She offers practical techniques for cultivating free and natural movement, a keen enjoyment of sounds and sensations, a clear and relaxed mind, and an open heart.
Crafted to enhance the listening experience of a broad spectrum of music-lovers, from curious novices to seasoned professionals, these engaging essays reveal Keller's affection for the men and women who have made the most irreplaceable contributions to the repertoire of chamber music, the art form once described by Goethe as the musical equivalent of "thoughtful people conversing."
Performance Practices of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries is divided into six parts. Part I, "Tempo," examines the roots of tempo in mensural notation and during the transition to modern notation; flexible tempo after 1600; tempo words; and the tempo of dances. Part II, "Rhythm," discusses the controversial areas of rhythmic alteration: the author argues against the international currency of notes inegales and questions the significance generally attributed to the "French Overture Style." Part III, "Dynamics," explores "terraced" and transitional dynamics and the reconstruction of dynamics from notation. Part IV, "Articulation," treats vocal articulation, instrumental legato and detachment, and special problems of articulation. Part V, "Phrasing," separately discusses the theory and practice of phrasing. Part VI, "Ornamentation," examines graces, trills, and other ornaments as well as improvisation, with an emphasis on the diversity of practices from place to place as well as over time.